• Somalilands Private Sector at Crossroads (A Wold Bank Study of 2016):

This report was jointly produced by a team from the World Bank Group led by Peter Mousley and Jade Ndiaye from the Trade and Competitiveness Global Practice in the Africa Region, together with Joshua Wimpey and Mohammad Amin from the Enterprise Survey team in the World Bank’s Development Economics Group; Cari Votava and Marco Nicoli from the Finance and Markets Global Practice; Christian Eigen-Zucchi from the Development Economics Prospects Group and specialist consultants Kenneth Menkhaus and David Phillips.

  • 12 Drivers of Economic Growth in Somaliland-combined (November 2014):

Main Messages:

  • Somaliland socio-economic outcomes are lagging behind the region.
  • Improving these outcomes require multi-prong approach (as outlined mostly in the NDP).
  • The main drivers of economic growth will create jobs and have a dent on poverty.
  • At this stage of its development discourse, Somaliland cannot do it alone, it will need more FDI and ODA.

  • Labor Force Survey Somaliland (2012):

This report presents the main results of the Borama, Hargeisa & Burao Labour Force Survey (SLFS) 2012. The SLFS was designed to capture data on Borama, Hargeisa & Burao that would permit an analysis of key indicators of the country’s labour market. Up to the time of carrying out this survey, there has been lack of recent statistics on labour force indicators for Somaliland. Some of the other related recent surveys and sources of data such as: the World Bank Socio-Economic Survey 2002; the Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit (FSNAU) livelihoods assessments and surveys; Data from EU funded TVET programmes involving Save the Children and Diakonia; and Somaliland Facts and Figures – have only limited labour market data and information.


  • Overcoming Challenges in an Unrecognized Economy (Muktar Adan A. "Koshin",  March 2017):

Despite Somaliland being the fourth poorest country in the world, Somaliland operates one of the lowest budgets of unrecognized states; it is unfortunate that 70% of its budget goes to the security sector while only 30% goes to the development programs (World Bank economic update of Somalia 2015).

According to Collier and Hoeffler (2005), most unrecognized states are low income countries, and the costs of non-recognition grow over time as their economies further decay, this is because the resources of unrecognized states are primarily focused on security which is generally characterized by a lack of public investment in critical sector which is the main vein of development like infrastructure and education.